Events leading up to Casti Connubii – The encyclical addresses the issues of contraception, divorce, and eugenics — here a history of events leading up to the . The doctrine of the Church on marriage was affirmed as definitive and binding by Pope Pius XI in his encyclical Casti Connubii of December Reading the signs of their times, Pope Pius XI in Casti connubii (December 31, ) and Pope Paul VI in Humanae vitae (July 25, ) both address the.
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Among whom we must mention in the first place infants hidden in the mother’s womb. The rampant disobedience of the divine and cpnnubii laws vis-a-vis artificial birth control cry out to God for vengeance. Wherefore, those who have the care of the State and of the public good cannot neglect the needs of married people and their families, without bringing great harm upon the State and on the common welfare.
Lastly, let them not omit to ask the prudent advice of their parents with regard to the partner, and let them regard this advice in no light manner, in order that by their mature knowledge and experience of human affairs, they may guard against a disastrous choice, and, on the threshold of matrimony, may receive more abundantly the divine blessing of the fourth commandment: Nor are those considered as acting against nature who in the connubiii state use their right in the proper manner although on account of natural reasons either of time or of certain defects, new life cannot be brought forth.
Although often these individuals are to be dissuaded from entering into matrimony, certainly it is wrong to brand men with the stigma of crime because they contract marriage, on the ground that, despite the fact that they are in every respect capable of matrimony, they will give birth only to defective children, even though they use all care and diligence.
Casti Connubii (December 31, ) | PIUS XI
To bring forward a recent and clear example of what is meant, it has happened quite in consonance with right order and entirely according to the law of Christ, that in the solemn Convention happily entered into between the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy, also in matrimonial affairs a peaceful settlement and friendly cooperation has been obtained, such as befitted the glorious history of the Italian people and its ancient and sacred traditions. We are deeply touched by the sufferings of those parents who, in extreme want, experience great difficulty in rearing their children.
Books are not lacking which dare to pronounce themselves as scientific but which in truth are merely coated with a veneer of science in order that they may the more easily insinuate their ideas.
The Church is obliged to articulate plainly and forthrightly the truths entrusted to her, including those truths that may be known to men of good will with the use of right reason. They then add that the marriage contract is to be freed from any indissoluble bond, and that separation and divorce are not only to be tolerated but sanctioned by the law; from which it follows finally that, robbed of all its holiness, matrimony should be enumerated amongst the secular and civil institutions.
And who would not grieve to think of these things? First of all, both husband and wife possess a positive guarantee of the endurance of this stability which that generous yielding of their persons and the intimate fellowship of their hearts by their nature strongly require, since true love never falls away. Others, taking a step further, simply state that marriage, being a private contract, is, like other private contracts, to be left to the consent and good pleasure of both parties, and so can be dissolved for any reason whatsoever.
Hence We earnestly exhort in the Lord all those who hold the reins of power that they establish and maintain firmly harmony and friendship with this Church of Christ so that through the united activity and energy of both powers the tremendous evils, fruits of those wanton liberties which assail both marriage and the family and are a menace to both Church and State, may be effectively frustrated. Paul writes, quoting Gen. Augustine, “are all the blessings of matrimony on account of which matrimony itself is a blessing; offspring, conjugal faith and the sacrament.
Hence the nature of this contract, which is proper and peculiar to it alone, makes it entirely different both from the union of animals entered into by the blind instinct of nature alone in which neither reason nor free will plays a part, and also from the haphazard unions of men, which are far removed from all true and honorable unions of will and enjoy none of the rights of family life.
They, therefore, who rashly and heedlessly contract mixed marriages, from which the maternal love and providence of the Church dissuades her children for very sound reasons, fail conspicuously in this respect, castti with danger to their eternal salvation. And so, whatever marriage is said to be contracted, either it is so contracted that it is really a true marriage, in which case it carries with it that enduring bond which by divine right is inherent in every true marriage; or it is thought to be contracted without that perpetual bond, and connbii that case there is no marriage, but an illicit union opposed of connuii very nature to the divine law, which therefore cannot be entered into or maintained.
Inthe Lambeth Conference of Anglican Bishops spoke of artificial birth control as “demoralizing to character and hostile to national welfare” Resolution 41; cf.
For the most wise God would have failed to make sufficient provision for children that had been born, and so for the whole human race, if He had not given to those to whom He had entrusted the power and right to beget them, the power also and the right to educate them.
Arcanum divinae sapientiae, 10 Casri. The Couple to Couple League. Ultimately, only a univocal obedience to the natural law ensures the right ordering and prosperity cqsti the human family and society in general.
A History of the Wife First ed. And the teaching of the Church is clear: Holy Church knows well that not infrequently one of the parties is sinned against rather than sinning, when for a grave cause he or she reluctantly allows the perversion of the right order.
Every sin committed as regards the offspring becomes in some way a sin against conjugal faith, since both these blessings are essentially connected. The dignity of the State will be enhanced, and with religion as its guide, there will never be a rule that is not just; while for the Church there will be at hand a safeguard and defense which will operate to the public good of the faithful.
If, however, for this purpose, private resources do not suffice, it is the duty of the cxsti authority to supply for the insufficient forces of individual effort, particularly in a matter which is of such importance to the common weal, touching as it does the maintenance of the family and married people.
InLambeth allowed cnonubii the use of artificial birth control, with such fonnubii guided by “Christian principles” Resolution 15; cf.
And so, in the first place, every effort must be made to bring about that which Our predecessor Leo Xlll, of happy memory, has already insisted upon, namely, that in the State such economic and social methods should be adopted as will enable every head of a family to earn as much as, according to his station in life, is necessary for himself, his wife, and for the rearing of his children, for “the laborer is worthy of his hire.
Great is the force of example, greater still that of lust; and with such incitements it cannot but happen that divorce and its consequent setting loose of the passions should spread daily and attack the souls of many like a contagious disease or a river bursting its banks and flooding the land.
As the salient features of the religious character of all marriage and particularly of the sacramental marriage of Christians have been treated at length and supported by weighty arguments in the encyclical letters of Leo XIII, letters which We have frequently recalled to mind and expressly made our own, We refer you to them, repeating here only a few points. From this comes the danger lest the love of man and wife grow cold and the peace and happiness of family life, resting as it does on the union of hearts, be destroyed.
Casti Connubii | papal encyclical |
This order includes both the primacy of the casit with regard to the wife and children, the ready subjection of the wife and her willing obedience, which the Apostle commends in these words: Public magistrates have no direct power over the bodies ccasti their subjects; therefore, where no crime has taken place and there is no cause present for grave punishment, they can never directly harm, or tamper with the integrity of the body, either for the reasons of eugenics or for any other reason.
There are those, moreover, who ask that the public castj provide aid for these death-dealing operations, a thing, which, sad to say, everyone knows is of very frequent occurrence in some places. Thus amongst the blessings of marriage, the child holds the first place. Again, since the issue of the day was neither fidelity nor grace, Pius and Paul highlight the evil of artificial birth control, which destroys the primary blessing of marriage, as the menace it is.
In a article published in The NationMargaret Sanger gave her personal reaction to the encyclical, saying that it was an obstacle to general approval of the birth-control movement by political leaders unwilling to oppose the leadership of the Church. But they are mistaken who think that these means are able to establish chastity in the nuptial union, or that they are more effective than supernatural grace.
By the very fact, therefore, that the faithful with sincere mind give such consent, they open up for themselves a treasure of sacramental grace from which they draw supernatural power for the fulfilling of their rights and duties faithfully, holily, perseveringly even unto death.
It is of no use to appeal to the right of taking away life for here it is a question of the innocent, whereas that connuvii has regard only to the guilty; nor is there here question of defense by bloodshed against an unjust aggressor for who would call an innocent child an unjust aggressor? Therefore although before Christ the sublimeness and the severity of the connubii law was so tempered that Moses connubii to the chosen people of God on account of the hardness of their hearts that a bill connhbii divorce might be given in certain circumstances, nevertheless, Christ, by virtue of His supreme legislative power, recalled this concession of greater liberty and restored the primeval law in its integrity by those words which must never be forgotten, “What God hath joined together let no man put asunder.
To this purpose we may ponder over the words full of real comfort of holy Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, who with other well-known theologians with devout conviction thus expresses himself: The failure of families, societies, and states to follow the natural law with regard to the generative gift of marriage results in moral decay. Since, therefore, openly departing from the uninterrupted Christian tradition some recently have judged it possible solemnly to declare another doctrine regarding this question, the Catholic Church, to whom God has entrusted the defense of the integrity and purity of morals, standing erect in the midst of the moral ruin which surrounds her, in order that she may preserve the chastity of the nuptial union from being defiled by this foul connbii, raises her voice in token of her divine ambassadorship and through Our mouth proclaims anew: And if ever they should feel themselves to be overburdened by the hardships of their condition of life, let them not lose courage, but rather let them regard in some measure as addressed to them that which St.
For just as God, in the case of the natural truths of religion and morals, added revelation to the light of reason so that what is right and true, “in the present state also of the human race may be known readily with real certainty without any admixture of error,” so for the same purpose he has constituted the Church the guardian and the teacher of the whole of the truth concerning religion and moral conduct; to her therefore should the faithful show obedience and subject their minds and hearts so as to be kept unharmed and free from error and moral corruption, and so that they shall connubio deprive themselves of that assistance given by God with such liberal bounty, they ought to show this due obedience not only when the Church defines something with solemn judgment, but also, in proper proportion, when by the constitutions and decrees of the Holy See, opinions are prescribed and condemned as dangerous or distorted.
It is then fitting that, with all fatherly solicitude, We should turn Our mind to seek out suitable remedies whereby those most detestable abuses which We have mentioned, may be removed, and everywhere marriage may again be revealed.
For in matrimony as well as in the use of the matrimonial rights there are also secondary ends, such as mutual aid, the cultivating of mutual love, and the quieting of concupiscence which husband and wife are not forbidden to consider so long as they are subordinated to the primary end and so long as the intrinsic nature of the act is preserved.